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Chess auf deutsch

chess auf deutsch

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "chess move" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „chess“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: play chess, chess game, game of chess, playing chess, chess player. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'chess' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.

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Dad and Duen play chess and end up fighting everyday. Sie spielt auch sehr gut Schach. Forumsdiskussionen, die den Suchbegriff enthalten chess-player - Schachspieler Letzter Beitrag: Sie können zwischen den folgenden Eröffnungsdatenbanken auswählen: Das war kein Pokerspiel, sondern eher ein kompliziertes Schachspiel mit völlig berechtigten, aber widersprüchlichen Ansprüchen. Schandorff spielte viele Jahre in der Bundesliga für Werder Bremen und gehörte zu der Mannschaft, die durch den Stichkampfsieg gegen Porz im Mai sensationell Deutscher Meister wurde.. I mean, she always liked chess. Hier kannst Du mehr darüber lesen. Wenn ich nicht lerne mein Schach selbst zu spielen. Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", last minute reisen barcelona the Portuguese "x" still is today. Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such Beste Spielothek in Volkmarode finden the Lewis chessmen. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the Beste Spielothek in Wischstauden finden every year catering to hannover 96 u19 of all levels. Retrieved from " https: In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissancechess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ". With the casino duisburg ladies night exception of en passantall pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. Beste Spielothek in Neuendorf finden are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. The Week in Chess. Secrets of Modern Chess Strategy. The Game of Free slot machines with bonus games is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable rostock casino of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by last minute reisen barcelona, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in Beste Spielothek in Heidekrug finden there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it. One tactic which takes advantage of a pin can be called working the pin.

Chess games may also be played with a time control. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost provided the opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate.

Time is controlled using a chess clock that has two displays, one for each player's remaining time. Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with increments.

Chess is believed to have originated in Eastern India , c. Thence it spread eastward and westward along the Silk Road.

The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby Sassanid Persia around , where the game came to be known by the name chatrang.

Chatrang was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia —44 , where it was then named shatranj , with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names.

The oldest archaeological chess artifacts, ivory pieces, were excavated in ancient Afrasiab , today's Samarkand , in Uzbekistan , central Asia, and date to about , with some of them possibly older.

The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic and dates to —, written by al-Adli ar-Rumi — , a renowned Arab chess player, titled Kitab ash-shatranj Book of the chess.

This is a lost manuscript, but referenced in later works. The eastern migration of chess, into China and Southeast Asia, has even less documentation than its migration west.

Alternatively, some contend that chess arose from Chinese chess or one of its predecessors, [14] although this has been contested.

By the year , it had spread throughout Europe. Around , the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around , several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today.

These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe. The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess [21] or international chess , [22] particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as xiangqi are prevalent.

The romantic era was characterized by opening gambits sacrificing pawns or even pieces , daring attacks, and brazen sacrifices.

Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time.

The game was played more for art than theory. A profound belief that chess merit resided in the players' genius rather than inherent in the position on the board pervaded chess practice.

In the 18th century, the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France. As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly.

Many chess clubs , chess books, and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in In , von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels Handbook of Chess , the first comprehensive manual of chess theory.

Chess was occasionally criticised in the 19th century as a waste of time. The first modern chess tournament was organized by Howard Staunton , a leading English chess player, and was held in London in It was won by the German Adolf Anderssen , who was hailed as the leading chess master.

His brilliant, energetic attacking style was typical for the time. Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with two younger players.

American Paul Morphy , an extraordinary chess prodigy , won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to play , including Anderssen, during his short chess career between and Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.

Prague -born Wilhelm Steinitz beginning in described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position.

Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components. The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan. After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew.

Some sources state that in the title of chess Grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch , and Marshall , but this is a disputed claim.

His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine , a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later.

They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.

After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought. FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruption , ran a tournament of elite players.

The winner of the tournament , Russian Mikhail Botvinnik , started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's first-move advantage.

As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches.

The world's strongest players were seeded into Interzonal tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments.

The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the " Candidates " stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.

The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.

This system operated on a three-year cycle. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years.

He won the world championship tournament in and retained the title in tied matches in and In , he lost to Vasily Smyslov , but regained the title in a rematch in In , he lost the title to the year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal , an accomplished tactician and attacking player.

Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in Following the event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian , a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, — His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia champion — , won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.

Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the s and early s with a string of tournament successes. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between and ; Karpov never won his title back.

From then until , there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: Kasparov lost his Classical title in to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.

Anand defended his title in the revenge match of , [49] and Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation.

The pieces are identified by their initials. For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file and the 5th rank" that is, to the square g5.

Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials to indicate the pieces, or figurine algebraic notation FAN may be used to avoid language difficulties.

To resolve ambiguities, one more letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved, e.

Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3", and R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".

The letter P for a pawn is not used, so that e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.

Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.

For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.

Particularly in Germany, some publications have used ": Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether, so that exd5 would be rendered simply as "ed".

Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling. An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.

Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols.

For example, one variation of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate see animated diagram can be recorded:. The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.

Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view.

For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" King's 3rd from White's point of view, and "K6" King's 6th from Black's point of view.

When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.

Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation:. Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88".

Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated. For example, the opening move 1. Castling is described by the king's move only, for example for White castling kingside, for Black castling queenside.

These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.

A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.

The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is showing players a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it.

Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.

During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.

But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton , or the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.

Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.

Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.

They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.

This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.

There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.

Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.

Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.

Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination.

Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.

Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.

Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board.

There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance , chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ".

Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.

But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.

Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency. Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.

Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.

This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.

During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.

The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.

By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.

Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.

Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".

Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.

The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.

It causes enmity and hatred between people. Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.

The creator is known as a chess composer. Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [89] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.

Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.

As of August , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. Top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, Ukraine, and Germany, with , 78, and The country with most grandmasters per capita is Iceland, with 11 GMs and 13 IMs among the population of , International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.

Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.

The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess has a very extensive literature.

In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle. One of the most important mathematical challenges of chess is the development of algorithms that can play chess.

Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.

The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices. When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.

More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.

Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.

For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

Although the link between performance in chess and general intelligence is often assumed, researchers have largely failed to confirm its existence.

However, performance in chess also relies substantially on one's experience playing the game, and the role of experience may overwhelm the role of intelligence.

Chess experts are estimated to have in excess of 10, and possibly as many as , position patterns stored in their memory; long training is necessary to acquire that amount of data.

A study of young chess players in the United Kingdom found that strong players tended to have above-average IQ scores, but, within that group, the correlation between chess skill and IQ was moderately negative, meaning that smarter children tended to achieve a lower level of chess skill.

This result was explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample, and by practice having a higher influence on chess skill.

There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:. Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias, [] the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

A two-player strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king. Moves of a rook.

Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook.

White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops. Black is not in check and has no legal move.

The result is stalemate. Consider the chess position shown at right. It is white's turn to move. The black bishop on d5 is unprotected and available for capture by the white knight on b4.

White should not capture the black bishop or otherwise move the knight because after 1. It can be said that the white knight is pinned to the space b1 rather than to an allied piece , as moving allows its "capture" by the opponent.

Pinning can also be used in combination with other tactics. For example, a piece can be pinned to prevent it from moving to attack, or a defending piece can be pinned as part of tactic undermining an opponent's defense.

A pinned piece can usually no longer be counted on as a defender of another friendly piece that is out of the pinning line of attack or as an attacker of an opposing piece out of the pinning line.

However, a pinned piece can still check the opposing king - and therefore still can defend friendly pieces against captures made by the enemy king.

The act of breaking a pin is unpinning. This can be executed in a number of ways: Although a pin is not a tactic in itself, it can be useful in tactical situations.

One tactic which takes advantage of a pin can be called working the pin. In this tactic, other pieces from the pinning piece's side attack the opposing pinned piece.

Since the pinned piece cannot move out of the line of attack, the pinned piece's player may move other pieces to defend the pinned piece, but the pinning player may yet attack with even more pieces, etc.

A pin that often occurs in openings is the move Bb5 which, if Black has moved The same may, of course, occur on the other flank, with a bishop on g5, or by Black on White, with a bishop on b4 or g4.

A common way to win the queen is to pin her to the king with a rook: White cannot play The only move that postpones the mate is Nf4, which temporarily blocks Black's bishop from protecting his queen, but to no avail as Black can simply play Bxf4 renewing the mate threat.

Or, Black can respond by mating a different way:. In this case, White cannot capture With mate being inevitable, White resigned after move From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

There is an absolute pin on the black knight — moving it would illegally expose the black king to check from the bishop. There is a relative pin on the white knight — moving it would allow the black rook to capture the queen.

Example of a partial pin. Since the black queen is pinned to the black king by the white rook, the queen cannot move off the e-file.

Schach mit den Obdachlosen. Beispiele, die Schachturnier enthalten, ansehen 9 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Vater und Duen spielen Schach und enden im Streit wie jeden Tag. Da gehört kein Bindestrich hin. Schach auf dem Handy spielen. Play chess with him, you name it. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Beispiele, die Schachpartie enthalten, ansehen 11 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Beispiele, die Schachspieles enthalten, ansehen 1 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen Schachspiel. Wie finde ich die neuen Satzbeispiele? Schandorff spielte viele Jahre in der Bundesliga für Werder Bremen und gehörte zu der Mannschaft, die durch den Stichkampfsieg gegen Porz im Mai sensationell Deutscher Meister wurde.. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Tom and Mary played chess all afternoon. Sie spielt auch sehr gut Schach. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen.

The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is showing players a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it.

Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.

During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides.

The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game. But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton , or the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.

Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.

Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.

They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.

This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.

Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame.

Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.

Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.

Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination.

Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames. Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.

Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board.

There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance , chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ".

Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.

But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.

Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency. Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.

Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.

This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.

During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.

The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.

By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.

Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.

Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".

Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.

The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.

It causes enmity and hatred between people. Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.

The creator is known as a chess composer. Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [89] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.

As of August , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. Top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, Ukraine, and Germany, with , 78, and The country with most grandmasters per capita is Iceland, with 11 GMs and 13 IMs among the population of , International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable. Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.

The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess has a very extensive literature.

In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle.

One of the most important mathematical challenges of chess is the development of algorithms that can play chess. Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.

The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.

When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall. More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.

Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.

For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

Although the link between performance in chess and general intelligence is often assumed, researchers have largely failed to confirm its existence.

However, performance in chess also relies substantially on one's experience playing the game, and the role of experience may overwhelm the role of intelligence.

Chess experts are estimated to have in excess of 10, and possibly as many as , position patterns stored in their memory; long training is necessary to acquire that amount of data.

A study of young chess players in the United Kingdom found that strong players tended to have above-average IQ scores, but, within that group, the correlation between chess skill and IQ was moderately negative, meaning that smarter children tended to achieve a lower level of chess skill.

This result was explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample, and by practice having a higher influence on chess skill.

There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:.

Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias, [] the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

A two-player strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king. Moves of a rook.

Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook.

White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops. Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate.

The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Square names in algebraic chess notation. After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king, Botvinnik played Chess in the arts.

A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals. List of chess variants.

Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.

The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes.

Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 4 October Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 8 March Li's The Genealogy of Chess ".

Archived from the original on 11 May Archived PDF from the original on 30 January Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original on 4 June The Chess Variant Pages.

Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 26 November Chess History and Reminiscences.

Archived from the original on 25 December Archived from the original on 1 September Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 26 October Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 4 September Archived from the original on 22 December Archived from the original on 26 December Retrieved 13 December Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 13 January Algebraic notation" in "E.

Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on 5 December Archived from the original on 10 January Online at University of Oregon.

Retrieved by Internet Archive, The Second Book of the Courtier. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 7 May The Game and Playe of the Chesse.

Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 11 February Archived from the original on 22 August Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 22 November Hou Yifan is World Champion".

Retrieved 6 August Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 28 August International Title Regulations Qualification Commission ".

Archived from the original on 20 December Archived from the original on 7 May Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 16 January A History of Chess.

The Oxford Companion to Chess. Retrieved on 11 January Archived from the original on 2 June In , Hooper and Whyld stated that Schmid's chess library "is the largest and finest in private hands, with more than 15, items".

In , Susan Polgar stated that Schmid "has over 20, chess books". Archived from the original on 10 February Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam states that Schmid "boasts to have amassed 50, chess books.

The title of the article refers to David DeLucia's collection, not Schmid's. Archived from the original on 29 June Archived 6 December at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 13 June University of Southampton and King's College Cambridge.

Archived from the original on 9 May Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. Philosophical Magazine , Ser. Available online at " computerhistory.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 March Retrieved 30 November An absolute pin is one where the piece shielded by the pinned piece is the king.

In this case it is illegal to move the pinned piece out of the line of attack, as that would place one's king in check. A piece pinned in this way can still give check or defend another piece from capture by the king.

A relative pin is one where the piece shielded by the pinned piece is a piece other than the king, but typically is more valuable than the pinned piece.

Moving such a pinned piece is legal but may not be prudent, as the shielded piece would then be vulnerable to capture. If a rook or queen is pinned along a file or rank , or a bishop or queen is pinned along a diagonal , the pin is a partial pin: A partially pinned piece can break its own pin by capturing the pinning piece; however, this can still be advantageous to the pinning player, as in the example diagram the pinning rook is defended, so capturing it with the queen would lose material.

Note that a queen can only ever be partially pinned, as it can move in any linear direction. It is possible for two opposing pieces to be partially pinning each other.

It is also possible for one piece to be pinned in one direction line of attack and partially pinned in another, or otherwise pinned in two or more directions.

Sometimes in a chess game position, a piece may be considered to be in a situational pin. In a situational pin, moving the pinned piece out of the line of attack will result in a situation detrimental to the player of the pinned piece, such as a checkmate or allowing a critical square to be occupied.

Although a situational pin is not an absolute pin and the pinned piece can still be moved according to the rules, moving out of line of attack can result in a bad situation or even immediate loss of the game.

Consider the chess position shown at right. It is white's turn to move. The black bishop on d5 is unprotected and available for capture by the white knight on b4.

White should not capture the black bishop or otherwise move the knight because after 1. It can be said that the white knight is pinned to the space b1 rather than to an allied piece , as moving allows its "capture" by the opponent.

Pinning can also be used in combination with other tactics. For example, a piece can be pinned to prevent it from moving to attack, or a defending piece can be pinned as part of tactic undermining an opponent's defense.

A pinned piece can usually no longer be counted on as a defender of another friendly piece that is out of the pinning line of attack or as an attacker of an opposing piece out of the pinning line.

However, a pinned piece can still check the opposing king - and therefore still can defend friendly pieces against captures made by the enemy king.

The act of breaking a pin is unpinning. This can be executed in a number of ways: Although a pin is not a tactic in itself, it can be useful in tactical situations.

One tactic which takes advantage of a pin can be called working the pin. In this tactic, other pieces from the pinning piece's side attack the opposing pinned piece.

Since the pinned piece cannot move out of the line of attack, the pinned piece's player may move other pieces to defend the pinned piece, but the pinning player may yet attack with even more pieces, etc.

A pin that often occurs in openings is the move Bb5 which, if Black has moved The same may, of course, occur on the other flank, with a bishop on g5, or by Black on White, with a bishop on b4 or g4.

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